José de Ribera

1591-1652 Spain/Baroque-Tenebrism


Brief Biography-José de Ribera, sometimes known as 'Lo Spagnoletto' the Little Spaniard, was regarded as a disciple of Caravaggio. He moved from Spain to Italy after studying under Francesco Ribalta in Valencia; both artists hailed from the region of Valencia. The tenebrous style of Ribalta influenced Ribera; however, it was most certainly reinforced later by the works of Caravaggio. The first place he lived was Parma, where the paintings of Correggio strongly influenced him. From there he went to Rome where he changed his style entirely to that of Caravaggio.

In 1616, he went to Naples, where he married and settled for the rest of his life. He became a notably successful artist with the aid of his Spanish connections in the city, as they were the rulers of Naples at that period, his principal employer was the Viceroy.

Joachim von Sandrart stated "The painting of Ixion on the Wheel, which was owned by Mr Ussel of Amsterdam, depicted so much agony, when his wife, who was with child, saw it, that the baby when born, had all its fingers distorted as were the fingers of Ixion in the painting, on that account, they sent the painting back to Italy."

Ribera became the principal instigator of the Cabal of Naples, which was a group that protected the city's workplace for Neapolitan artists only, through the intimidation of outsiders. During the revolt against the rule of Habsburg Spain in Naples in 1647, he moved from his home to a house of refuge where his work diminished and he died in relative poverty. His works influenced several artists, including the Spanish artists Diego Velázquez and Esteban Murillo.


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a jesuit

a jesuit missionary

adoration of the

adoration of the shepherds

an old money

an old money lender





assumption of the

assumption of the magdalena

christ among the

christ among the doctors

clubfooted boy

clubfooted boy



duel of isabella de

duel of isabella de carazzi and diambra de pottinella

ecce homo

ecce homo

ecce homo two

ecce homo two

head of saint john
the baptist

head of saint john the baptist

at rest

hercules at rest[



landscape with

landscape with shepherds

martyrdom of saint

martyrdom of saint andrew

saint andrew

saint andrew

saint francis
of paola

saint francis of paola

saint giuseppe

saint giuseppe

saint jerome and
the angel

saint jerome and the angel

saint jerome

saint jerome

saint john the
baptist in the desert

saint john the baptist in the desert

saint onufri

saint onufri

saint sebastian

saint sebastian tended by the holy women

sense of

sense of taste

the bearded

the bearded woman

the denial of
saint peter

the denial of saint peter

the holy

the holy family

the philosopher

the philosopher thales